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What is PET?

Polyethylene terephthalate (aka PET, PETE or the obsolete PETP or PET-P) is a thermoplastic polymer resin of the polyester family and is used in synthetic fibers; beverage, food and other liquid containers; thermoforming applications; and engineering resins often in combination with glass fiber. It is one of the most important raw materials used in man-made fibers.

 

Depending on its processing and thermal history, it may exist both as an amorphous (transparent) and as a semi-crystalline (opaque and white) material. Its monomer can be synthesized by the esterification reaction between terephthalic acid and ethylene glycol with water as a byproduct, or the transesterification reaction between ethylene glycol and dimethyl terephthalate with methanol as a byproduct. Polymerization is through a polycondensation reaction of the monomers (done immediately after esterification/transesterification) with ethylene glycol as the byproduct (the ethylene glycol is recycled in production).

 

The majority of the world's PET production is for synthetic fibers (in excess of 60%) with bottle production accounting for around 30% of global demand. In discussing textile applications, PET is generally referred to as simply "polyester" while "PET" is used most often to refer to packaging applications.

 

Uses

 

PET can be semi-rigid to rigid, depending on its thickness, and is very lightweight. It makes a good gas and fair moisture barrier, as well as a good barrier to alcohol (requires additional "Barrier" treatment) and solvents. It is strong and impact-resistant. It is naturally colorless and transparent.

 

When produced as a thin film (often known by the tradename Mylar), PET is often coated with aluminium to reduce its permeability, and to make it reflective and opaque. PET bottles are excellent barrier materials and are widely used for soft drinks, (see carbonation). PET or Dacron is also used as a thermal insulation layer on the outside of the International Space Station as seen in an episode of Modern Marvels "Sub Zero". For certain specialty bottles, PET sandwiches an additional polyvinyl alcohol to further reduce its oxygen permeability.

 

When filled with glass particles or fibers, it becomes significantly stiffer and more durable. This glass-filled plastic, in a semi-crystalline formulation. 

 

While all thermoplastics are technically recyclable, PET bottle recycling is more practical than many other plastic applications. The primary reason is that plastic carbonated soft drink bottles and water bottles are almost exclusively PET which makes them more easily identifiable in a recycle stream. PET has a resin identification code of 1. PET, as with many plastics, is also an excellent candidate for thermal recycling (incineration) as it is composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen with only trace amounts of catalyst elements (no sulfur) and has the energy content of soft coal.

Intrinsic viscosity 


One of the most important characteristics of PET is referred to as I.V.(intrinsic viscosity).

 

The I.V. of the material, measured in dl/g (deciliters/gram) is dependent upon the length of its polymer chains. The longer the chains, the stiffer the material, and therefore the higher the I.V. The average chain length of a particular batch of resin can be controlled during polymerization.

 

An I.V. of about:

 

0.60 - Would be appropriate for fiber
0.65 - Film
0.76-0.84 - Bottles
0.85 - Tire cord

 

Date:Aug 07, 2010 Click:/
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